Codenames

Encyclopedia of Codenames of World War II

(Routledge & Kegan Paul 1985)

FLAP COPY

Overlord … Barbarossa … Bagration … Market … Garden … SHO … Maggot… Torch …Sealion … Scipio … Carpetbagger … Mi…Window … Rupert. Codenames such as these were a vital feature of World War II, serving as a type of mental shorthand for those in the know, obscuring the issue for those who were not. Codenames were used from the highest level, in the planning of grand strategic moves affecting the conduct of the whole war, to the lowest command divisions, in the conduct of small-scale tactical operations. This encyclopedia, designed to remove the mystery surrounding many of the more important codenames, covers around 3,000 of them. Drawn from all sides — the UK, the USA, Germany, Italy, the USSR, Japan — and from all theatres of war, the book gives an astonishingly complete overview of the conduct of the entire war. Alphabetically arranged, it provides a listing of major operations and codewords of World War II. It also includes a sample of other codenames, giving an insight into more obscure operations such as the infiltration of agents into occupied Europe and the tactical use of special airborne forces. In the case of planning and strategic concepts, the author describes the context in which the codename arose and developed. In the case of operational codenames, he provides a summary of the operation: its aims, the forces involved, the commanders, the geographical and time frames in which it happened, and the results. Thorough and very exciting, the encyclopedia is indispensable to military historians, tacticians, and wargame enthusiasts, and quite fascinating to anyone with a general interest in World War II.

INTRODUCTION

Operations … ought not to be described by code-words which imply a boastful and over-confident sentiment … which are calculated to invest the plan with an air of despondency. … They ought not to be names of frivolous character. … They should not be ordinary words. … Names of living people should be avoided.’ Prime Minister Churchill to General Sir Hastings Ismay (August 1943)

A codename is one selected by those party to the concept as a method of imparting a meaning different from the conventional one, and is designed as an aid to security of information. Codenames were an important feature of World War II, serving as a type of mental shorthand for those in the know, and obfuscating the issue for those not in the know. Thus operations, plans, locations and personalities could be disguised from the enemy (who sought to garner information either directly by the use of their own intelligence services or indirectly through the indiscretions of those who had come into possession of information to which they had no right) while the codeword was itself an adequate mental trigger for those concerned with the planning and implementation of the operation in question. Such codenames were used from the highest levels, in the planning of grand strategic moves affecting the conduct of the whole war, to the lowest command echelons, in the conduct of small-scale tactical operations. At the one level the codename might be valid for months or even years, while at the other it would maintain its currency for only a short period, measured most probably in hours rather than days. This encyclopedia is designed as an aid to those interested in the higher command levels of World War II, and is intended not so much as a complete listing (which would be virtually impossible) but as a summary of the more important strategic and operational codenames, together with a sample of other codenames designed to provide a small insight into more obscure operations such as the infiltration of agents into occupied Europe and the tactical use of special airborne forces. The core of the work is thus a fairly large but none the less eclectic selection of operational codenames, and my aim has been to provide the reader with a summary of the concept embodied in the selected codenames. In the case of planning and strategic concepts, the rationale has been to provide the context in which the codename arose, was used and was developed either into implementation or ultimate abandonment. In the case of operational codenames, the rationale has been to provide a summary of the operation: its aims, the forces involved, the commanders, the geographical and time frames in which it happened, and the results.

The codenames of World War II have been a subject of enduring fascination to me, and I hope that the reader will find it of equal interest and stimulation. I am conscious that so monumental a task of selection and appreciation must reflect my own bias, but I feel that it has been fair to the parties concerned, and hope that the reader will agree. I remain candidly open to suggestions for modification and expansion, and will gratefully consider any opinions which readers may proffer.

Since I wrote these words in 1985, the subject of World War II codenames has remained a subject of enduring fascination to me. Over the years I have added diligently to those included in the RKP book, and I now have a database of some 5,250 operations extending to something in the order of 1.6 million words. I read and I research, and keep adding to and correcting/emending the database.

Even so, there are some codenames that remain elusive: were they actually used, what are their details, etc?

If you know anything (information, references etc) about the items I have placed on the list below, and have the inclination to pass on that knowledge with a view to a larger and more comprehensive book, I would be very glad to hear from you at info@cmchant.com. Anything that I can add to the database as a result will be fully credited to you.

In the hope that you will be able and willing to help, many anticipatory thanks.

Christopher Chant

ABCOL British plan for the defence of the installations of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in Iran.

ABILITY British plan for the destruction of important ports in the event of any German invasion of the UK (1941).

ABNORMAL Advance of the Chinese and associated US forces toward Yeu in northern Burma (1944).

ACCORDION Movement of British troops to Freetown in Gold Coast (August 1940).

ACONITE British operation in the Middle East (February 1941).

ADAMSTOWN British operation to effect a partial relief of the British ground and air forces in Cyprus (April 1942).

ADROIT Allied contingency plan for the occupation of the Canary islands at the invitation of Spain.

AJAX Unrealised British plan for a naval operation against positions in German-occupied Norway (1941).

ALDERPOINT Series of British small-scale raids on German positions round the northern coast of the Adriatic Sea off the eastern coast of Italy (1944/45).

ALUITE British reconnaissance of the coast of Vichy French-held Syria at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea by men of the Special Boat Service (June 1940).

AMBROSE British special forces raid on Morlaix on the northern coast of Brittany in the north-west of German-occupied France (?).

AMINA Unsuccessful German sabotage attempt to destroy the oil refineries and associated installations at Abadan in Iran (June/August 1941).

AMMONIA Allied air attack on the Romanian oil industry.

AMRITA British naval undertaking to lay a defensive minefield in association with ‘Overlord’ (June 1944).

ANNOYANCE Allied naval gunfire bombardments of Axis positions on the western coast of Italy in the period immediately preceding the launch of ‘Avalanche’ (August/September 1943).

ANNUITY Overall US plan for operations to follow ‘Hotplate’ in New Guinea (1944).

ANSTEY British naval undertaking to land Allied agents near Genoa on the coast of north-western Italy (March 1944).

ANT British special forces operation by the Special Boat Service on the coast of Japanese-occupied Sarawak in the East Indies (March 1945).

ANTEROOM British special forces raid on the bay of Mont St Michel on the Normandy coast of German-occupied northern France (July 1944).

APPLE Airborne raid by the Chinese 1st Parachute Commando to cut the Japanese lines of communication near Kaiping (12 July 1945).

APPLEJACK British naval undertaking against German shipping in the Stavfjord and the port of Stadlandet on the western coast of German-occupied Norway (?).

ARCTIC Allied naval landing of Free French agents on the south-western shore of the island of Elba (April 1944).

ARISEN British naval operation to deliver supplies to Mersa Matruh on the north-western coast of Egypt (1941).

ARMPIT British amphibious operation in the area of Dalmatia and the Istrian peninsula (1944/45).

ARMSTRONG Unrealised British plan for a combined operations attack on a German coastal artillery battery at Cayeux on the northern coast of France (July 1942).

ASCOT Unrealised British plan for the seizure of Bodø, on the western coast of Norway, as a base for light naval forces operating against the German maritime communications.

ATLANTIS Unrealised British operation against the northern part of German-occupied Norway (?).

ATTABOY British special forces raid on Knokke on the coast of German-occupied Belgium (October 1942).

ATTEMPT Unrealised British operation against the Japanese forces in the Arakan coastal region of Japanese-occupied western Burma (February 1945).

BABOON British naval reconnaissance of Phuket island off the western coast of Thailand to assess possible landing beaches (March 1945).

BACKDOOR British operation against S-boote (?).

BACKSIDE British sub-operation within ‘Ironclad’ and the subsequent conquest of Madagascar (September 1942).

BACKSTAGE British operation to infiltrate a mission into Bulgaria (?).

BALDHEAD Unrealised British operation against the Japanese-occupied Andaman islands in the Bay of Bengal (?).

BANGOR British multi-phase naval operation in which motor torpedo boats patrolled off the coast of the German-occupied Netherlands to intercept and destroy German coastal shipping (1944).

BANKNOTE Unrealised British operation to attack German and Italian vessels operating in the coastal waters of neutral Spain.

BARBARA Unrealised British plan for an X-craft midget submarine operation along the western coast of German-occupied Norway (autumn 1943).

BARBARISM British special forces operation by the Special Operations Group against Kalayaung on the Arakan western coast of Japanese-occupied Burma (15/16 December 1944).

BAREFOOT Unrealised British operation for a raid on the western coast of German-occupied Norway.

BARNACLE British bombing raid on the U-boat construction, repair and maintenance facilities in Danzig in German-occupied Poland.

BARRAGE (i) Unsuccessful British air and sea operation designed to intercept and destroy a Japanese submarine carrying important passengers from Germany to Singapore (11/13 November 1943).

(ii) British special forces raid in the Dodecanese islands in the southern part of the Aegean Sea (January 1944).

BEDLAM GREEN British carrierborne air attack on the Japanese positions and facilities at Medan on the north-eastern coast of Sumatra island in the Japanese-occupied Netherlands East Indies (June 1945).

BEHEMOTH Allied operation to delay a German and Italian advance in Tunisia (spring 1943).

BETRAY British special forces raid on the island of Kálymnos, between the islands of Kos and Léros, in the south-eastern part of the Aegean Sea (?).

BETTY British naval undertaking to land a sabotage team of the Special Operations Executive at Tongah (January 1942).

BEWARE Unrealised British plan for the initial operations of the RAF from Turkish airfields should Turkey join the Allied powers.

BIG GAME British naval undertaking to land stores on Gorgona island, in the Tuscan islands archipelago, south-west of Livorno in the Ligurian Sea (June 1944).

BILGE Unrealised British plan for the destruction of a pumping station on an oil pipeline in Vichy French Syria (1941).

BILLET Allied plan for the transfer of Burmese irregular forces to India for training in covert operations procedures and tactics (1944).

BILLOW Unsuccessful British naval undertaking to land a party of Special Operations Executive agents on the coast of Thailand (April 1944).

BIOSCOPE British commando liaison mission to the resistance forces in Czechoslovakia (?).

BIVOUAC British commando liaison mission to the resistance forces in Czechoslovakia.

BLACKMAIL Agreement between the British and the French resistance forces that the former would not bomb factories in German-occupied France if the latter would undertake to sabotage these factories.

BLACKTHORN Unrealised British scheme to aid neutral Spain in the event that Germans started military operations against that country.

BLAST British deception operation off the western coast of German-occupied France (?).

BLOWPIPE Unrealised British plan for naval operations with Vichy French forces in the Middle East (November 1942/May 1943).

BLUEBERRY Airborne operation by the Chinese 2nd Parachute Commando to cut the Japanese lines of communication near Chakiang (27 July 1945).

BLUES British naval plan for carrierborne air attacks on targets in the southern part of German-occupied Norway with the intention of persuading the Germans that an Allied landing on the coast of Norway was still a real threat (June 1944).

BLUNT Unrealised British plan for special force raids on the island of Kásos in the Dodecanese islands in the south-eastern part of the Aegean Sea (February/March 1941).

BOANERGES Unrealised Allied plan for the occupation of all or part of French North Africa in the event that the Vichy French offered no opposition.

BOATSWAIN Unrealised British plan for the destruction of the oil terminal facilities in the port of Tripoli in Italian-held Libya (1941).

BODYLINE Allied bombing campaign against German secret weapon production centres, later redesignated as ‘Diver’ (autumn 1944).

BOILER Unrequired British plan to counter a major break-out by Axis naval forces (1940/45).

BOILERMAKER Unrealised Allied plan to foment revolt in Axis-occupied Albania (1942/44).

BOISTEROUS Series of unrealised Allied plans developed by Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten’s South-East Asia Command for the recapture of Malaya (1945).

BONNET Pair of British operations against German V-1 flying bomb sites along the southern coast of the English Channel (August 1944).

BOOKMARK Allied air operation against German shipping in the coastal waters of the German-occupied Netherlands.

BOTTLE British clandestine minelaying operation using fishing vessels (April 1941).

BOTTOM Unrealised British plan for an attack on the major Italian warships in the harbour of Taranto, on the ‘instep’ of Italy, by X-craft midget submarines (August 1943).

BRACKNELL Unrealised British plan for an attack on the coast of German-occupied Europe.

BRAINTREE Allied deception plan in the Mediterranean theatre.

BRAKE British special forces operation by the Special Air Service (March 1945).

BRAMFORD Unrealised British special forces raid on a target on the western coast of the Cotentin peninsula in German-occupied northern France.

BRANFORD British amphibious reconnaissance mission by an element of the Small Scale Raiding Force to assess the military utility of the Ile Burhou to the north-west of Alderney in the Channel Islands off the coast of the Cotentin peninsula (7 September 1942).

BRAVADO British mining operation off the Heligoland Bight end of the Kiel Canal to deter any German naval operation to attack the Allied shipping off Normandy in ‘Neptune’, the naval element of ‘Overlord’ (6 June 1944). The operation was undertaken in parallel with ‘Maple’.

BREATH Unrealised early Allied plan for the assault on and capture of the Italian island of Sicily against German and Italian opposition, and as such a precursor of ‘Husky’.

BREEZY Unrealised early British plan for the seizure of the Canary islands, a Spanish possession in the Atlantic Ocean, in the face of Spanish opposition.

BRENDON British raid on the island of Gossa off the western coast of German-occupied Norway in the central section of the country (July 1942).

BROADSWORD Unrealised plan by Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten’s South-East Asia Command for the recapture of Malaya and the reopening of the Malacca Straits (1944).

BRONZE British commando liaison mission to the resistance movement in Czechoslovakia.

BRUTE Pair of raids by British and Indian forces in Japanese-occupied Burma (March and April 1945).

BRUTUS Airborne operation by the Belgian Independent Parachute Company, Special Air Service, to aid a local resistance unit near Yvour and Mulet in Belgium (5/9 September 1944).

BUCHE-PASCAL German clandestine receipt by the Abwehr of Soviet secret transmissions (1942/43).

BUCKLE Unrealised British plan to take and hold the Italian island of Pantelleria, in the Mediterranean Sea between Sicily and Tunisia, as a base for two fighter squadrons of the RAF (1941).

BUCKSHOT British undertaking to provide air support for the USSR (October 1942).

BUNCH Movement of Canadian forces to the UK (1941).

BUNDLE British attack on a German ship in the harbour of Oslo, the capital of German-occupied Norway, by a party of Special Operations Executive operatives (February 1944).

BUNGHOLE (i) Allied gliderborne undertaking for the delivery of a Soviet liaison team into German-occupied Yugoslavia to make contact with Marshal Josip Broz Tito and his partisan forces (19 February 1944).

(ii) Allied intelligence mission infiltrated into German-occupied Czechoslovakia (27 February 1944).

BURNSALL British special forces operation in Italy (1944).

BUSYBODY First of an eventual five unrealised British plans for a special forces operation to kill or, preferably, to capture for interrogation, German military personnel at Hardelot near the northern coast of German-occupied France (1942).

BUTTERCUP British naval and air offensive against U-boats operating in the western end of the English Channel (January 1942).

CABARET (i) British naval attempt to bring out from a Sweden port blockade-running vessels carrying vital war supplies such as ball bearings, rare metals etc (4/6 February 1943).

(ii) British naval undertaking to land Allied agents on the coast of southern France (1944).

CALCIUM British commando intelligence mission to the Czechoslovak resistance movement.

CANDLESTICK Overall Allied designation for a series of aborted raids on coastal targets in the German-occupied northern part of France (December 1943).

CANNED British naval bombardment of Italian coastal positions and dumps at Banda Alula in Italian Somaliland (1940).

CARAVAN British attack by the Long Range Desert Group on the Axis-held airfield at Barce in the northern Cyrenaica region of Libya as part of ‘Rosemary’ (13 September 1942).

CARDINAL US airborne operation by units of the Office of Strategic Services to rescue Allied prisoners of war held by the Japanese at Mukden in Manchukuo (Manchuria) at the time of Japan’s collapse (15 August 1945).

CASTLE British special forces raid on Jøssingfjord on the south-western coast of German-occupied Norway (January 1941).

CATGUT British special forces raid on the island of Walcheren on the coast of the German-occupied Netherlands (November 1942).

CATSWHISKERS British raid against Japanese positions on Ramree island off the Arakan western coast region of Japanese-occupied Burma (January 1944).

CAUSEWAY British naval undertaking to intercept a Vichy French convoy in the Indian Ocean (September 1940).

CENTAUR British special forces raid on the Glomfjord on the northern part of the western coast of German-occupied Norway (June 1942).

CHARACTER British undertaking to raise and use levies of the Karen hill tribes to harass and cut the lines of communication essential to the operations and indeed continued existence of the Japanese formations of Lieutenant General Masaki Honda’s 33rd Army retreating to the south from northern Burma along the valley of the Sittang river (April/June 1945).

CHARITON British operation by the Special Operations Executive to support partisan operations in north-western Italy (4 February 1945).

CHILLI Allied programme of nocturnal air operations to prevent U-boats breaking out into the Atlantic from German bases (January 1945).

CHIMAERA British raid on Ramree island off the Arakan western coastal region of Japanese-occupied Burma (February 1945).

CHOCOLATE British attack on the Axis positions and installations in and around Tobruk by aircraft operating from a temporary base established specifically for this purpose in the North African desert (25 April 1942).

CHOPPER British special forces raid against St Vaast and St Aubin on the northern coast of German-occupied France by men of No. 1 Commando (27/28 September 1941).

CHROMATIC British operation of the Special Operations Executive from Gibraltar.

CHUCK British naval undertaking to interfere with the movement of German shipping to and from ports of German-occupied Norway by the laying of dummy mines in the entrances to fjords and ports (?).

CINDERS Allied airborne undertaking to ensure the speedy establishment of an area command and military government centre in the northern Italian city of Turin (May 1945).

CLEARANCE BAKER British special forces raid on a Japanese target in the western part of Thailand (April 1945).

CLIPSHAM British special forces raid on Utsira island off the south-western coast of German-occupied Norway (September 1943).

CLOAK British naval sweep by motor launches off the island of Alderney in the German-occupied Channel Islands (March 1942).

COBBLESTONE British naval attacks on German shipping off the coast of German-occupied Norway (February/March 1943).

COLLARSTUD Unrealised British special forces operation against a target in the Finnmark area of the extreme north of German-occupied Norway (June 1943).

COLUMBIA British special forces raid on a German target in the Pas de Calais region of German-occupied northern France (November 1942).

COMMANDEER British special forces operation against the island of Patmos in the Dodecanese islands of the Aegean Sea in German-occupied Greece (?).

CONCEPT British special forces operation against German installations on the island of Goeree-Overflakkee on the coast of the Netherlands (January 1943).

CONCERTINA Unrealised British plan for the destruction of the main electricity-generating facility supplying power to Athens (?).

CONFIDENCE British naval undertaking to allow a beach reconnaissance of the western coast of Japanese-occupied Malaya to the south of Morib in the area of Port Dickson (10 June 1945).

CONGO Combined Office of Strategic Services and Special Operations Executive operations, from ‘Jungle’, across the Adriatic Sea into German-occupied Albania and Yugoslavia (1943/44).

CONTEXT British operation against Bender Qassim on the northern coast of Italian Somaliland (spring 1941).

COOKER US special forces raid on the southern coast of the Axis-occupied island of Crete (19 April 1944).

COPYCAT Allied operation against Forges de l’Adour in German-occupied France (?).

COPYRIGHT British naval undertaking to allow a beach reconnaissance of Phuket island off the western coast of Thailand (March 1945).

CORBY British special forces raid on a target in the Etretat area of the northern coast of German-occupied France (July 1942).

CORDITE British beach reconnaissance of part of the Italian-held island of Rhodes in the south-eastern part of the Aegean Sea by a party of the Special Boat Service (March 1941).

CORMORANT British offensive by Major General G. H. A. MacMillan’s 15th Division, Major General E. H. Barker’s 49th Division and Major General D. A. H. Graham’s 50th Division of Lieutenant General Sir Richard O’Connor’s VIII Corps within Lieutenant General Sir Miles Dempsey’s 2nd Army south of Rauray in Normandy (14 July 1944). This was the immediate successor to ‘Charnwood’.

CORTON I British reconnaissance of the Japanese-occupied Andaman islands in the Bay of Bengal by a submarine and landing party (February 1944).

CORTON II British naval delivery of supplies to the reconnaissance party landed on the Andaman islands in ‘Corton I’ (April 1944).

CROCKER US attack on a German weather station in Greenland (May 1943).

CROFTER British delivery of a token force of Norwegian troops to fight alongside the Soviets in the northern USSR (1942).

CROSSKEYS Unrealised Allied naval plan for amphibious landing operations in German-occupied Denmark (1944).

CRUIKSHANK British and Canadian operation to secure an initial foothold in the German-occupied Netherlands (?).

CRUPPER Unrealised plan for a British special forces raid on the area of Etaples on the coast of German-occupied northern France (?).

CUCUMBER British bombing effort against Tripoli, the most important port of Italian-held Libya, by Malta-based aircraft (July 1941).

CUFFLEY Allied movement of supplies to ports in Spanish Morocco (1943).

CUT British naval undertaking to free mercantile shipping being held by the Vichy French at Mayotte island of the Comoros group at the northern end of the Madagascar Strait between Portuguese East Africa and Madagascar (July 1942).

CUTLASS Overall Allied designation of land and air operations covering the land advances from Yunnan in southern China, Ledo in northern Burma and Imphal in eastern India (autumn/winter 1944).

CYGNUS British rescue mission by a Royal Navy motor torpedo boat to recover Special Intelligence Service personnel and Norwegian civilians from Batalden island off the western coast of German-occupied Norway to the north of Bergen (28 May 1944).

DARLINGTON (i) British naval undertaking to rescue Allied prisoners of war in the area south of Ancona on the eastern coast of central Italy (25/26 May 1944).

(ii) British special forces raid on the German positions along the Ternia river in Italy (May 1944).

DAVID British special forces beach reconnaissance operation on Elizabeth island off the south-western coast of Burma (October 1944).

DC British naval delivery of stores and mail to the Kola Inlet of the northern USSR (July 1944).

DECEIT British naval transport of Allied personnel to the ports of the northern USSR (?).

DEFECT British naval undertaking to remove wounded and non-essential personnel from Major General Leslie J. Morshead’s Australian 9th Division garrisoning besieged Tobruk (July 1941).

DEGREE British ‘Special Operation No. 2’ in the Middle East (?)

DEMURE British naval undertaking to land tanks on the northern coast of North Africa west of El Alamein (?).

DILATOR Unrealised British operation against the northern coast of German-occupied France (?).

DOMESDAY Allied cover plan for an operation supposedly directed at the area between Boulogne on the northern coast of German-occupied France and the coast of German-occupied Belgium (?).

DORMER British naval contingency plan to deal with any breakout by major German naval forces from the Baltic Sea to ports on the western coast of German-occupied Norway, or vice versa (?).

DOUBLE BEAVER Unrealised British naval undertaking against the German naval base in the Åsfjord on the south-eastern coast of German-occupied Norway (?).

DUNN Allied air evacuation of wounded men from the Slovenian region of Yugoslavia to Italy (25/26 March 1945).

DYNAMITE Unrealised British plan for operation in German-occupied Norway (1941).

ELECTRODE British operation to clear the last Italian forces from British Somaliland after the ‘Appearance’ landing.

EMOLUMENT British naval delivery of a party of Special Operations Executive agents onto the coast of Crete (August 1943).

EXPEDITE British naval undertaking to land on the shore of German-occupied Greece a number of Free Greek personnel for clandestine operations (December 1943).

EXPRESS British offensive to the west of the Orne river in the Normandy lodgement area of ‘Overlord’ by Lieutenant General N. M. Ritchie’s XII Corps of Lieutenant General Sir Miles Dempsey’s 2nd Army (25 July 1944).

EXTEND Operation by the British and commonwealth forces in Madagascar (August 1942).

FABRIC British Middle East cover plan.

FACSIMILE British special forces raid by the Small Scale Raiding Force against Morlaix airfield in the northern part of German-occupied France (16 October 1942).

FALAISE British special forces sabotage raid against a target in French North Africa (12 January 1942).

FALL RIVER Allied programme of deliver reinforcements to and build airfields in the Milne Bay area of south-eastern Papua (1942).

FATHOM British special forces raid on the Sept Iles islet group off the northern coast of Brittany in German-occupied France (December 1942).

FELICE British special forces raid to sabotage a bridge west of Hammamet on the eastern coast of Axis-occupied Tunisia (May 1943).

FELICITATE British designation for raiding operations on the northern coast of German-occupied France (December 1943).

FENCE British anti-submarine operations in the Strait of Otranto between southern Italy and Albania (?).

FERNBANK British naval undertaking to create and disseminate false information about Allied anti-submarine weapons (October 1943).

FERRET British naval undertaking to recover escaped prisoners of war from the north-western coast of Italy in the area of La Spezia (June 1944).

FILIBUSTER Overall Allied designation for the unrealised assault on the defences of Generaloberst Hans von Salmuth’s 15th Army by Lieutenant J. T. Crocker’s British I Corps of Lieutenant General H. D. G. Crerar’s Canadian 1st Army between Calais and Dunkirk on the northern coast of France (autumn 1944).

FIREATER Series of British naval and special forces undertakings between and on the Dodecanese islands under German-occupation in the south-western part of the Aegean Sea (January/June 1944).

FIREPUMP British airborne operation by the 153rd Gurkha Parachute Battalion to prepare a landing strip near Fort Hertz in northern Burma (13 August 1942).

FLUX Unrealised British plan to make a seaborne landing on the coast of the Italian island of Sicily (June 1941).

FLYFORD British special forces operation against Stord island off the south-western coast of German-occupied Norway (March 1943).

FN British naval diversionary operation off the northern coast of German-occupied Norway by elements of Admiral Sir Bruce Fraser’s Home Fleet (August 1943).

FORGAN British special forces raid on Skarsten in the Åspenes region on the western coast of German-occupied Norway (October 1943).

FOXCHASE British anti-shipping operation off the coast of Norway (1945).

FQ British naval undertaking to transport relief forces and supplies to Spitsbergen island off the northern coast of German-occupied Norway (October 1943).

FR British naval undertaking to send warships to the ports of the northern USSR to recover merchant seamen survivors of vessels sunk in the course of Arctic convoys (November 1943).

FRANZ Unrealised German operation against the British lines of communication in Iran using special forces by providing support and encouragement for anti-British tribesmen in mountain areas (1943).

FRINTON British and commonwealth operation in Madagascar (?).

FRIPPERY Small-scale British canoe-borne reconnaissance landings on possible assault beaches along the coast of the island of Sumatra in the Japanese-occupied Netherlands East Indies (September 1944).

FROG Unrealised British special forces raid against a target on the northern coast of German-occupied France (June 1944).

FULLSIZE British diversionary activity by Lieutenant General N. M. Ritchie’s 8th Army in North Africa designed to attract and hold the attentions of the Axis air forces and so ease the passage of the MW.10 convoy to Malta (20/22 March 1942).

GANDER British landing by a small party of commandos on Kastelorizo island in the Aegean Sea off the coast of Turkey to take advantage of Italy’s armistice with the Allies before the Germans could seize control (9/10 August 1943).

GANYMEDE British convoy from Gibraltar to Malta (1942).

GARSTON British operation against German-occupied Norway (March 1943).

GELDING British operation against an Italian convoy off Crete on passage to North Africa (August 1942).

GELIGNITE British amphibious operation in the area of Dalmatia and the Istrian peninsula (1944/45).

GERANIUM British air mining zone in the waters of the Baltic Sea off Swinemünde in northern Germany (?).

GILMAN British despatch of aircraft reinforcements to Malta (?).

GLUCINIUM British special forces intelligence mission in German-occupied Czechoslovakia.

GOVERNESS Allied movement of small craft to the Low Countries for coastal anti-shipping operations and amphibious warfare operations (November 1944).

GRAPH British movement of men and equipment of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers from the UK as reinforcements for the garrison of Gibraltar (?).

GREEN ROOM British special forces operation by the Special Air Service (?).

GREGORY British beach reconnaissance of Ramree island, off the Arakan western coastal region of Japanese-occupied Burma, by a party of the Special Boat Service operating from the motor launch ML-10 (October 1944).

GRENADINE Allied air operation to provide protection for convoys plying the Arctic route to and from the ports in the northern USSR (February 1943).

GRINNELL British operation to deliver Supermarine Spitfire fighters to Malta from the aircraft carrier Furious (?).

GUDGEON Air attack on the northern Italian city of Milan undertaken in daylight to maximise bombing accuracy (?).

GUSTAVUS Series of British naval undertakings to land parties of Special Operations Executive agents on the coast of Japanese-occupied Malaya (June 1943).

GUY FAWKES 51st Division in the Netherlands (November 1944).

HABO British night air patrols along the English Channel between Boulogne and Cherbourg in German-occupied northern France, by aircraft of RAF Coastal Command (?)

HALBEATH British combined operation (January 1943).

HARKAWAY Unrealised Allied plan for the capture of the Cotentin peninsula on the northern coast of German-occupied France (?).

HARLEY Unrealised British plan for the delivery of fighters to Malta (1941).

HASTE British undertaking to collect intelligence on German military strengths and dispositions in northern France (8 July 1944).

HATCH British naval undertaking to land agents of the Special Operations Executive in the Japanese-occupied Andaman islands in the Bay of Bengal (December 1944).

HAVEN British operation to deliver a secret mission to Hungary (?).

HEADSTRONG British naval undertaking to land an agent of the Special Operations executive on the coast of German-occupied Crete (May 1942).

HEALING II British special forces attack by commandos against Spilje on the coast of the German-occupied Netherlands (28/29 July 1944).

HELMET British codename for the detection of major German warships moving out of Norwegian waters (?).

HOOK British naval operations against piracy in the waters off Thailand (?).

HOUNDSMITH British special forces operation by the Special Air Service near Dijon in central France (1944).

HU1 British naval minelaying operation off the Ile Vierge off the north-western coast of German-occupied France (?).

HUCKABUCK British special forces reconnaissance raid by the Small Scale Raiding Force against the German positions on the islands of Sark and Herm in the German-occupied Channel Islands (27/28 February 1943).

HURDY British special forces operation by a Jeep-mounted Special Air Service party behind the German lines in France (July 1944).

HUSSAR Pair of Allied amphibious operations in the Scheldt river estuary in Belgium and the Netherlands downstream of Antwerp (autumn/winter 1944).

HYPERION Talks between the British and Portuguese staffs (?).

IBROX Unrealised British special forces operation for 10 troopers of the 2nd Special Air Service to destroy a railway bridge near Trondheim in Norway (March 1945).

INCURABLE Unrealised British air operation against the Cotentin peninsula in German-occupied northern France (?).

INHABIT Unrealised British plan for a special forces raid on Cap Levy on the northern coast of German-occupied France near Cherbourg by the Small Scale Raiding Force (October 1942). The raid was called off as a result of navigational problems.

INITIAL British naval sweep though the Bay of Bengal by Admiral Sir James Somerville’s Eastern Fleet as a show of force and for training (March 1944).

INSEL (island) German operation to destroy the radio equipment of an Allied agent operating north-eastern of the island of Hydra in the Saronic gulf region of Axis-occupied Greece (1 May 1943).

IRRIGATE Unrealised British plan to land a substantial raiding force somewhere on the northern coast of German-occupied France to harass the local German garrisons (summer 1941).

JOLKA Unrealised German plan for the invasion and capture of neutral Switzerland (?).

JORDAN Unrealised British plan to float incendiary matter down major rivers in German-occupied Europe and set this matter alight (1941).

JOSEPH Undeveloped German plan to attack and destroy electricity-generating plants around Moscow (1944).

JOSEPHINE Overall British designation for Special Operations Executive operations in the south-western part of German-occupied France (?).

JOSHUA Unrealised British plan proposed to the USSR for joint operations in Finland (?).

JOYFUL British programme of air attacks on German air bases in the northern part of German-occupied France (1942).

JV British special forces attack by Troop 101 (Folbot) against a tanker in Boulogne harbour on the northern coast of German-occupied France (11/12 April 1942).

KADELLA (?) German airdrop of agents in the Marseille area of southern France (autumn 1944).

KARNEVAL (carnival) German airdrop of agents in the Brussels and Waals region of Belgium (1945).

KJA British special forces beach reconnaissance undertaking near the Pointe d’Ailly on the northern coast of German-occupied France (March 1943).

KJD British special forces beach reconnaissance undertaking on the eastern side of the Cotentin peninsula on the northern coast of German-occupied France (March 1943).

KJF British beach reconnaissance undertaking in the English Channel (December 1943).

KNIFE British submarine operation to land officers and stores at Ålesund on the western coast of Norway (April 1940).

KNOCKER US operation to supply aircraft from the continental USA to the UK (1942).

KRUSCHEN British plan for an offensive by major elements of the Home Fleet on German shipping in the coastal waters of German-occupied Norway (?).

LACE Defence of Pul-I-Tang (?).

LADBROOK Unsuccessful British naval undertaking to land agents of the Special Operations Executive on the southern coast of German-occupied France (January 1944).

LANCELOT II British naval undertaking by elements of Admiral Sir James Somerville’s Eastern Fleet (February 1944).

LANDAU British fast ship transport from Gibraltar and Malta (?).

LANDSMAN British delivery of aircraft reinforcements to Malta (July 1942).

LANSDALE British delivery of stores to Malta by sea (?).

LD Series of British naval undertakings to lay dummy minefields off the eastern coast of the UK (?)

LEAF British operation to stockpile supplies and create a defence for Al Fatha (?).

LEEK British offensive by Lieutenant General B. G. Horrocks’s XXX Corps of Lieutenant General Sir Miles Dempsey’s 2nd Army from the eastern Netherlands to cross the Niers river and capture of the German town of Weeze (24 February 1945).

LETTERBOOK Unrealised British plan for an operation against a target area on the coast of German-occupied Norway (?).

LOCHMABEN British special forces undertaking by the ‘Ken’ Force patrol of the Long Range Desert Group to support partisan forces in Albania (24 September 1944).

LOCKNUT Unrealised British plan for an operation against the coast of German-occupied Norway (?).

LOCKSMITH British operation against the Corinth Canal in German-occupied Greece (January 1943).

LOZRY British naval undertaking by the 10th Cruiser Squadron of Admiral Sir Bruce Fraser’s Home Fleet, supported by destroyers, to cover the passage to the Kola Inlet of destroyers with personnel and stores to support Supermarine Spitfire photo-reconnaissance aircraft to monitor the German battleship Tirpitz in the Altenfjord. of German-occupied northern Norway (August 1943). The battleship and several destroyers were at sea, but missed the convoy.

LUCKY GUESS Unrealised British plan for an operation against German-occupied Norway (?)

LYNCHPIN (i) British plan to send troops to Iraq (?).

(ii) Unrealised British plan for the capture of Ramree island off the Arakan western coastal region of Japanese-occupied Burma (?).

MACADAM Movement of a British force by sea to a port in the northern part of the USSR (January 1943).

MAFIA Allied plan for operations against Axis warships (?).

MAGNESIUM British special forces intelligence mission in Czechoslovakia (?).

MAICE Unrealised Free French plan for the seizure of French Somaliland by a coup-de-main operation (1941).

MALICE Allied plan to retrieve any failure or exploit the success of the ‘Y’ operation against Mandalay in Burma (1945).

MANOTICK British naval undertaking to ship stores destined for Malta via the Middle East (?).

MANUAL British patrol activities in the area of Tobruk on the northern coast of Africa (May 1942).

MARBLE US operation to deliver reinforcements and supplies to the garrison in Iceland (1941).

MARDONIS British operation by agents of the Special Operations Executive against German shipping in the harbour of Oslo in German-occupied Norway (March 1944).

MARGIN British special forces reconnaissance raids on the coast of German-occupied northern France in the area of Calais and Cherbourg (?).

MARGOT British establishment of a meteorological station on St Paul’s island off the island of Malta (?).

MB1 British naval gunfire bombardment of Bardia on the coast of North Africa (August 1940).

METROPOLE British special forces raid on a target on the northern coast of German-occupied France (March 1943).

MIDHURST Unrealised British plan for operations against industrial facilities in German-occupied Norway (?).

MOLECULE British delivery of stores to Malta via the Middle East (1941/42).

MOON British operation in Europe by the Special Operations Executive (?).

MORSE Allied operation against U-boats transiting the Bay of Biscay (September 1943).

MOSUL German air drop of agents and supplies near Mosul in the northern part of Iraq (1944).

MUD British naval undertaking to land a party of Secret Intelligence Service agents from a submarine onto the coast of Perak in Japanese-occupied Malaya (February 1945).

MUDLARK British naval undertaking to suppress piracy in Malayan waters (1945).

NARZAN Unrealised Allied plan for the movement of British and US troops to the southern USSR for deployment on the Eastern Front (?).

NECKTIE Operation in Portugal by the Special Operations Executive (?).

NETTLE British combined army, navy and air force deception operation in the Bay of Bengal (?).

NEWMAN Unrealised British operation to reinforce the fighter strength of Malta directly by aircraft carrier (?)

NIBBLE Unrealised British plan for a seaborne and land attack by an Indian brigade in the Arakan western coastal region of Japanese-occupied Burma (1943).

NIBLICK Overall designation of British and commonwealth naval operations in the Persian Gulf (July 1940).

NIGHT LIGHT Unrealised British plan for the invasion of Norway (?).

NOAH II British special forces operation in Japanese-occupied Malaya (March 1945).

NORDIC British delivery of fighters to Malta (?).

NOSTRIL British naval interception patrols to find and destroy German shipping in the Aegean Sea (October 1944).

OAK (?)

OATCAKE British transfer of units from the Middle East to North Africa (?).

OCTOPUS Unrealised Allied plan for the capture of the Sunda Strait, by taking the flanking western end of Java and eastern end of Sumatra islands in the Japanese-occupied Netherlands East Indies (?).

OMNIBUS 42 British attacks on targets along the northern coast of German-occupied Norway (February/March 1943).

OPIUM British concentration of forces in No. 1 Area of Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten’s South-East Asia Command and the movement of these forces to the Arakan western coastal region of Japanese-occupied Burma (?).

OPPIDAN British reinforcement of the defence forces on Malta with Supermarine Spitfire fighters delivered from the flightdeck of the US aircraft carrier Wasp (?).

ORCHESTRA Designation of British personnel scheduled for movement to the Azores islands, a Portuguese possession on the Atlantic Ocean (?).

ORGANDIE British operation in the Shan States eastern region of Japanese-occupied Burma (?).

OUTDISTANCE British special forces liaison mission in German-occupied Czechoslovakia (?).

OUTBID Allied air warning word in the Mediterranean theatre (April 1943).

PACKHORSE British naval and air operations against U-boats in the South-Western Approaches and Bay of Biscay (1941/43).

PAGEANT British operation to ship crated Hawker Hurricane fighters to Takoradi in West Africa for assembly and subsequent self-delivery to the Middle East theatre (March 1941).

PALMERSTON British special forces operation to dislocate the Axis headquarters in the Cyrenaica region of Italian-held North Africa, and also damage the German-used air base at Martuba (?)

PALMYRA British special forces raid by the Special Air Service.

PAMPA Allied meteorological flights over Germany and eastern Europe (?).

PARKPLATZ (parking place) Unrealised German plan for an operation against Leningrad (15 March 1943).

PATENT Allied cover operation in the Middle East (?).

PENZANCE British naval undertaking by elements of Admiral Sir Arthur Power’s East Indies Fleet to intercept and destroy Japanese naval and merchant ships off the coast of Burma (April 1945).

PERCOLATE British operational method in which Vickers Wellington medium bombers and Bristol Beaufighter heavy fighters co-operated for attacks on German surface vessels (?).

PERIANTH US Office of Strategic Services’ support, otherwise known as ‘Sepals’, for a clandestine mission in neutral Sweden (1944).

PERLENFISCHER (pearlfisher) German airdrop of agents in the area of Paris, the capital of France (late 1944).

PERSON Unrealised British plan to use ‘Highball’ bombs against Axis ships in Mediterranean ports (?).

PHAROS British operation to establish an air staging post in the Cocos and Keeling islands (?).

PIGSKIN Unrealised British plan to occupy portions of Portuguese East Africa in the area north of the Zambesi river (?).

PIKE British operation to run support and supply convoys from Alexandria to Tobruk and Benghazi on the northern coast of Africa in support of ‘Guillotine’ and ‘Fire Eater’ (December 1942).

PILEDRIVER Unrealised British plan for a special forces raid on German targets in the German-occupied Channel Islands and the nearby Cherbourg area of the north of German-occupied France (?).

PINPRICK British raid on German targets along the Maas river (February 1945).

PISCES II British operation to land agents and stores on the western coast of German-occupied Norway (?).

PLASTER Unrealised British plan to take and hold key areas of Portuguese West Africa (?).

PLATEAU Preparatory undertakings by the Special Operations Executive in association with ‘Puma’.

PONTIFF British air attack on a bridge of the railway route linking Paris and Brest in German-occupied France (January 1943).

POPLAR British operation to deliver air reinforcements to Malta (?).

POSTHORN British carrierborne air attack by a portion of Admiral Sir Bruce Fraser’s Home Fleet on German airfields and shipping along the coast of Norway (February 1944).

POWDER MONKEY British special forces raid on a German target on the western coast of German-occupied Norway (?).

PREJUDICE Allied naval operations to gain and then maintain control of the Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea (1943/44).

PRESSGANG Unrealised British plan for a winter operation to take the Azores islands, a Portuguese possession in the Atlantic Ocean (?).

PRINCIPAL (i) Overall British designation of submarine patrols off the port of Oran in Vichy French North Africa (April 1941).

(ii) British movement of men and urgent stores by air to Malta (?).

PROSPECT British programme to reinforce the forces in the Middle Eastern theatre (?).

PROTEUS British operation in support of ‘Fortitude’ in the form of a reconnaissance to assess the feasibility of a seaborne assault on Narvik on the north-western coast of German-occupied Norway (May 1944).

PS British naval gunfire bombardment of the port facilities of Calais on the north-eastern coast of German-occupied France (October 1940).

PUDDLE British airborne reconnaissance operation by the 153rd Gurkha Parachute Battalion in the Myitkyina region of Burma (3 July 1943).

PUFF Allied air attack on the marshalling yards at Modane in the south-east of German-occupied France on the strategically important route to Turin in north-western Italy (1944).

PUGNACIOUS Unrealised British plan to move an infantry brigade group from India to Burma in the event of ‘certain conditions’ (May 1943).

PULLOVER British attack on the rail line in German-occupied Norway linking the mineral ore fields in northern Sweden with the port of Narvik (?).

PURBLIND British bombing effort against S-boot facilities by aircraft of No. 16 Group of RAF Coastal Command under naval tactical control (?).

QO British mineclearing operation (1942).

QUARTER British delivery of aircraft reinforcements to Malta (1942).

QUICK British operation to reinforce two RAF squadrons in Malta (1941).

RAFFLE British operation to deliver men and equipment from the UK to the Middle East in two ships of the ‘Grey Funnel’ line (?).

RAMBLER British special forces raid on Plage Ste Cecile on the northern coast of German-occupied France (?).

RAYON Allied cover operation in the Middle East (?).

REFLECTION British naval undertaking to land French agents in St Brieuc Bay on the Breton coast of German-occupied France (June 1944).

RELIEF British undertaking for the temporary basing of RAF flying boat units, normally based in India and Ceylon, on the coast of East Africa (?).

REQUEST British naval undertaking to deliver supplies to Major General R. N. O’Connor’s Western Desert Force at Mersa Matruh on the coast of North Africa (November 1940).

RINGCRAFT Unrealised British plan for the seizure of the Azores islands, a Portuguese possession in the Atlantic Ocean, in a winter operation (?).

RINGLEADER British aircraft carrier deployment to Murmansk in the northern USSR (?).

ROUNDABOUT Aborted British special forces operation to make a landing at Landet in German-occupied Norway (23 March 1943).

RUCKSACK British operation to deliver additional troops to Iraq (?).

RUMFORD British special forces attack on the Ile de Yeu off the western coast of German-occupied France (25/26 August 1944).

RUPERT British convoy from Gibraltar to Malta (June 1942).

RUSTY British photo-reconnaissance operations in Africa (?).

SALAD British special forces reconnaissance raid on the Cap d’Antifer on the northern coast of German-occupied France between Fécamp and Le Havre (?).

SALMON British and US operation against U-boats operating in the North Atlantic (1943).

SALUTARIS Unrealised British special forces raid on IJmuiden on the coast of the German-occupied Netherlands (March 1942).

SANDFLY British landing by a detachment of the Special Boat Squadron on the coast of Japanese-occupied North Borneo (March 1945).

SANDWICH First British supply convoy to Malta following the defeat of the Axis forces in North Africa (May 1943).

SARDINE Unrealised Allied plan for an amphibious assault in the northern reaches of the Adriatic Sea (1944/45).

SATURN Unrealised British plan for the recapture of Rangoon in Japanese-occupied Burma (?).

SCANTLING British operation to deliver aircraft reinforcements to Malta (?).

SCISSORS British programme of small-scale raids by the Independent Companies on the western coast of German-occupied Norway (1940).

SCORCH British special forces raid on Dir en Nasra (January 1943).

SECCOTINE British operation to strengthen the forces in and around Freetown, the capital and major port of Sierra Leone in West Africa (?).

SENTIMENT Unrealised British plan for a special forces assault operation in North Africa (1942).

SHARK British defensive measures to protect ships in the harbour of Portland, on the southern coast of the UK, against attacks by German midget submarines and the like (?).

SHEIKH MAHMUT Failed German attempt to establish one or more special forces and intelligence bases in Iraq (1943).

SHOTGUN British deception plan associated with the availability, strength and location of commonwealth manpower (?).

SILVER A British special forces intelligence operation to establish liaison with the resistance forces in German-occupied Czechoslovakia (1942).

SILVER B British communications mission connected with ‘Silver A’ (1942).

SIROCCO British attack on coastal targets in German-occupied Belgium and the Netherlands (January 1943).

SKIRMISH British operation to deliver Bristol Beaufighter heavy fighters to Malta (1941).

SNATCH British attack on Japanese positions on the Elizabeth islands off the south-western coast of Japanese-occupied Burma (November 1944).

SNEEZE British naval undertakings in conjunction with Free French naval elements in the Middle East (November 1942/May 1943).

SNOWSHOE Allied invasion exercise in Scotland (?).

SODIUM British special forces intelligence mission to establish links with the local resistance forces in German-occupied Czechoslovakia (?).

SPELTER British special forces intelligence mission in German-occupied Czechoslovakia (?).

SPINACH British air mining in the Baltic Sea off Gdynia (?).

SPINOZA British capture of Japanese-occupied Elizabeth island off the south-western coast of Burma by Brigadier G. R. Hardy’s 3rd Commando Brigade (1945).

SPRAT British series of sabotage missions by the Special Boat Service against targets of the island of Sumatra in the Japanese-occupied Netherlands East Indies (September 1944).

SPRAY British operation by Brigadier G. R. Hardy’s 3rd Commando Brigade on a target in the Arakan western coastal region of Japanese-occupied Burma (spring 1945).

SQUAB Trio of unrealised British plans for the recapture of Jersey (‘Squab I’), Guernsey (‘Squab II’) and Alderney (‘Squab III’) in the German-occupied Channel Islands (?).

STALLION British operation by the Special Boat Service on the coast of Japanese-occupied Borneo (May 1945).

STARBOARD British special forces raid on the Ile de Batz off the coast of the Brittany region of German-occupied France (March 1942).

STATEMENT British special forces raid on the Ile Milliau in the Bréhat islands archipelago off the coast of Brittany in German-occupied northern France (January 1943).

STEEL British naval undertaking to land a party of Special Operations Executive agents on the coast of the island of Sumatra in the Japanese-occupied Netherlands East Indies (July 1944).

STRYCHNINE Unrealised British plan for an amphibious landing in an area of the Scheldt river estuary (April 1945).

STUMPER (i) British operation against islands in the Trondheimsfjord on the western coast of German-occupied Norway with the object of destroying German garrisons and artillery positions (?).

(ii) British special forces daylight operation against the German garrison of Måløy at the same time as ‘Anklet’ (26/28 December 1941).

SUBJECT British operation to intercept and destroy German minelaying and anti-ship operations (?).

SUBTRACT British maritime reconnaissance of and raid on Pulau Rawa island off the south-eastern coast of Japanese-occupied Malaya (July 1945).

SULPHUR British special forces intelligence mission in German-occupied Czechoslovakia (?).

SURFAT Overall British designation for attacks on Axis surface warships (?).

SWAN British special forces operation by the Special Air Service (1944).

SWEATER US cover plan (?)

SWEEP British convoy operation from Gibraltar to Malta (1942).

SYBIL British movement of army elements and supplies to Iraq (January 1941).

SYMPTOM Unrealised British plan for an amphibious landing at Sollum, on the north-western coast of Egypt, in an effort to prevent a retreat of Axis forces to the west (?).

TANKER British slow convoy operation in the Mediterranean from Gibraltar to Malta taking advantage of the temporary lull resulting from Axis preoccupation with an immediately preceding fast convoy (?).

TECHNICAL British fast convoy operation in the Mediterranean from Gibraltar to Malta taking advantage of the temporary lull resulting from Axis preoccupation with an immediately preceding slow convoy (?).

TENTACLE Unrealised Allied plan for the design, construction, deployment and use of floating airfields made of concrete (?).

TENTPEG Build-up of the USAAF’ airlift operation between India and China over the ‘Hump’ of the eastern Himalayan mountains (?).

THRESHER British programme of small-scale raids on targets along the western coast of German-occupied Norway (October 1941).

TILDEN British delivery of Supermarine Spitfire fighters to Malta for the strengthening of the island’s air defences (?).

TOKEN British special forces raid by the Small Scale Raiding Force on the bay of Anse de St Martin on the Cotentin peninsula of German-occupied northern France (14 February 1942).

TRANSPORT British naval and carrierborne air attack, otherwise known as ‘Onboard’, against military facilities in the Japanese-occupied Andaman islands in the Bay of Bengal (19 May 1944).

TRELLISWORK British special forces raid on Les Sept Isles, off the northern coast of Brittany in German-occupied France (January 1943).

TROMBONE British special forces raid on the island of Kastelorizo in the German-occupied Dodecanese islands in the south-eastern part of the Aegean Sea (October 1943).

TURNSCREW Unrealised British special forces plan for an attack by commando elements on the German positions at Ambleteuse in German-occupied France (1942).

TUREEN British operation to move additional military personnel to Malta (June 1942).

TURNPIKE Unrealised British operation to block the Corinth Canal through the isthmus connecting the Peloponnese with the rest of mainland Greece (?).

UNISON Allied codename for incendiary bombing (?)

VENTILATE British naval undertaking to rescue local Greek leaders from Crete by submarine (?).

WALRUS Unrealised plan for a British special forces raid on the Capo d’Ali on the Italian island of Sicily (August 1943).

WEATHER VANE British special forces raid by the Small Scale Raiding Force on the Pointe de Minor on the northern coast of German-occupied France (December 1942).

WIMPOLE Unrealised British plan for a attack on the Japanese lines of communication in the northern part of Japanese-occupied Burma (May 1943).

WOODWARD Unrealised British plan for a special forces raid on the Ile de la Vierge off the northern coast of German-occupied France (December 1942).

WORK BASKET Unrealised British plan for an operation against Korčula island in the Adriatic Sea off German-occupied Yugoslavia (autumn 1944).

WORK JACKET Unrealised British plan for an attack by commando forces on a German target in the Adriatic Sea (September 1944).

XERXES Unrealised British plan for an attack on Lastovo island in the Adriatic Sea off the Dalmatian coast of Croatia in German-occupied Yugoslavia (July 1944).

YACHT Unrealised British plan for a special forces raid launched from Mergui, on the coast of Burma’s southern ‘tail’, against Japanese positions on the western coast of Japanese-occupied Malaya in preparation for ‘Zipper’ (summer 1945).

YORKER British special forces raid on Sogndal in German-occupied Norway (February 1943).

ZINC British commando liaison mission in Czechoslovakia.

ZMD Pair of British naval undertakings to lay minefields of the Northern Mine Barrage in the area of the Færoe islands (?).

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